List of 20 major Exceptions in Selenium WebDriver?

An exception is a much-known word in the programming world, it doesn’t matter you are writing codes in which language. Exceptions are like the villain for programmers, but it is far better than any bug or error because it throws logical termination.  We will discuss the various exceptions in Selenium WebDriver, but before that let me explain you the real technical knowledge about Exceptions.

What is an Exception?

It is a logical event which is mainly thrown at runtime that disrupts the normal flow of a program. In general, we say this is an abnormal condition of the code or logic written in the programming language.


Recommended Readings: How to handle multiple windows in Selenium?


Classification of Exception

Exceptions are classified in mainly two types, Checked Exception and Unchecked Exception.

Let’s discuss each of the classifications in details:

1. Checked Exception

Checked Exceptions are the exceptions which are handled while writing codes. These exceptions are handled before compiling the code; hence, such exceptions are checked at the compile time.

Example: WebDriver Exception

2. Unchecked Exception

These are the exceptions which are thrown at runtime. Runtime exceptions are worse than compile time exception. It creates trouble while running Automation pack in headless.

Example: NoSuchElementException

Exceptions in Selenium WebDriver

Image Credit: JavaTPoint

List of Exceptions in Selenium WebDriver

Below are the lists of major exceptions in Selenium WebDriver which occur at compile time as well as run time. Today we will only discuss the types of exceptions which are coming in Selenium WebDriver and in next tutorial we will learn to handle these exceptions in Selenium WebDriver with Java programming.

1. ElementNotVisibleException

This type of Exception occurs when existing element in DOM has an attribute set as hidden. In this case, elements are there, but they are not visible or available to interact with the WebDriver.

Root Cause:

  • HTML attribute set to ‘hidden


2. NoSuchElementException

WebDriver is not able to find the existence of web element on the web page. Here, the findBy method is unable to find the web element.

Root Cause:

  • Locators of the web element may have changed
  • Elements are removed from the DOM
  • Their coordinates have changed


3. ElementNotSelectableException

As its name says, WebDriver is not able to select or click the web element on Application under test (AUT).

Root Cause:

  • The attribute of the web element is set to disable


4. NoSuchWindowException

Selenium WebDriver is unable to switch to the window.

Root Cause:

  • The possible root cause could be the invalid address of the window
  • Switchable window does not exist


5. NoSuchFrameException

WebDriver is unable to switch to the given frame.

Root Cause:

  • Invalid address of the frame
  • Switchable frame does not exist


6. NoAlertPresentException

Selenium WebDriver is unable to switch to the alert.

Root Cause:

  • Alert does not exist at particular session


7. InvalidSelectorException

When you write wrong XPath syntax then this exception may occur.

Root Cause:

  • Syntax is not correct


8. TimeoutException

This exception mainly occurs when you use to wait commands like Implicit Wait, Explicit Wait or Fluent Wait. Once any of the waits fails after exceeding defined time then TimeoutException occurs.

Root Cause:

  • WebDriver fails to perform activity in defined time


9. WebDriver Exception

This exception occurs when WebDriver performs its action after immediately closing the browser. Example: Try to use an older version of ChromeDriver.Exe with latest Google Chrome and latest Selenium JAR file then WebDriver will give WebDriver Exception.


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10. StaleElementReferenceException

This exception occurs when the web element gets detached from the current DOM.

Root Cause:

  • Sometimes it occurs due to slow server response

Exceptions in Selenium

11. SessionNotFoundException

This exception occurs when webdriver starts new action without giving delay after finishing the previous action. In simple terms, WebDriver performs the new action after immediately quitting the browser which was running in the previous session.


12. InvalidCoordinatesException

This exception occurs when you write command to perform the action by specifying coordinates and WebDriver unable to act as per given coordinates.


13. UnableToSetCookieException

This exception occurs when WebDriver fails to set the cookie in the browser.


14. UnhandledAlertException

When an alert is present, but WebDriver unable to perform the Alert operation then UnhandledAlertException occurs.


15. InvalidCookieDomainException

When the user gives commands to insert cookie which is having the different domain name then InvalidCookieDomainException occurs.


16. UnreachableBrowserException

This exception occurs when the browser does not open or due to some reason browser may have crashed.


17. UnsupportedCommandException

When remote WebDriver send invalid command then UnsupportedCommandException occurs.


18. ConnectionClosedException

This exception occurs when there is a connection loss in the driver.


19. MoveTargetOutOfBoundsException

This exception occurs when the defined target does not exist in the given size.


20. NoSuchContextException

This type of exception mainly occurs in mobile device testing. It is thrown by ContextAware.

These are the list of 20 major exceptions in Selenium, if you have any queries then feel free to write in comment below.

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